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Active and Passive Immunity


Definition of Immunity

Definition of Immunity- Immunity is that immuno-physiological process of our body.

In which the body’s immune system destroys external bacteria, viruses or other harmful chemicals (antigens) that cause disease.

In simple words, immunity is the process of protecting the body from external germs. Similarly, disease resistance is also called immunity.

Now we will understand in detail about the concept of active and passive immunity.

You can also read this to know more about antibodies in hindi- Antibodies in hindi

What is Active Immunity?

Active Immunity– When harmful bacteria, viruses or other germs that cause a disease enter the body, the body becomes aggressive towards them.

In this type of response, the body itself starts producing antibodies or immune protons. Which destroy the antigen or antigen.

Although active immunity can be understood in two ways, in the first antibody is formed naturally in the body, it is called natural active immunity.

And in the second process, the body is instructed to make antibodies in an artificial way, which we call artificial active immunity.

In this way, we will understand active immunity in two ways-

1-Natural Active Immunity

2-Artificial Active Immunity

What is Natural Active Immunity?

Natural Active Immunity– When the body itself starts the formation of antibodies or immune proteins in response to an antigen or antigen, it is called natural active immunity.

In this process, our B-lymphocyte cell gets activated when an antigen enters the body and develops into two types of cells.

One is what we call plasma B cell or effector cell, and the other is called memory B cell.

It remembers antigens or remembers their chemical nature.

And if the same antigen enters the body again in the future, this time it

Rapidly destroys them by creating antibodies.

What is Artificial Active Immunity?

Artificial Active Immunity- In this process, to avoid any disease, Immunization is done by Vaccination in the body, so that Antibody is already formed and Booster dose can also be applied if needed.

Child vaccination in the world works on this principle.

The only difference between Artificial Active Immunity and Natural Active Immunity is that a body itself becomes Antibody.

And in the second, the body’s immune system is stimulated with the help of antigens to produce antibodies.

In this way, in both the conditions, antibodies are made naturally by the body itself.


What is Passive Immunity?

Passive Immunity – In this type of immunity, the body itself does not make antibodies or immune proteins, rather, the antibodies made by it are received from outside.

Passive immunity can also be understood in two ways –

1-Natural Passive Immunity

2-Artificial Passive Immunity


What is Natural Passive Immunity?

Natural Passive Immunity – The immunity in which the body gets ready-made or made-made antibodies, that is to say, antibodies are produced naturally by the body. are not made.

This can be understood by this example-

During the embryonic development in humans, the body of the embryo is not mature enough to make antibodies on its own, so the antibodies (such as maternal antibody-G or Immunoglobulin-G) made by the placenta from the mother’s body. The developing embryo meets through the placenta.

If we see in this way, even after childbirth or the birth of a baby, he gets antibodies from the mother through her milk during the initial breast feeding.


What is Artificial Passive Immunity?

Artificial Passive Immunity – In this process too, ready-made antibodies are applied to the body, but these antibodies are created by immunization in the body of another animal, and in the human body are applied as per requirement.

Such as Anti-tennus Serum which is given to avoid Tetanus disease, and similarly Antivenom which is given on snake bite.

In this way, the antibodies made in both these stages are available to the body.

But the most important thing to understand here is that these antibodies are not formed in the human body but in some other animal, because the human body is capable of making antibodies against all types of antigens. has not been successful.

What is antigen?

Any factor or chemical that stimulates the formation of antibodies in our body is called antigen.


In today’s post, we understood the following questions related to active and passive immunity such as-

What is active and passive immunity?
What are the types of active and passive immunity?

What is the difference between active and passive immunity?

However, any kind of suggestion or update and if you see any mistake, then you must tell us.

We will try our best to update your suggestion or any mistake which happened somewhere in the post.

Thank you very much for giving your valuable time.

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