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Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration and is performed by all types of cells cytoplasm to break down glucose.

Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis is the process in which the oxidation of glucose occurs in the absence of oxygen in the cytoplasm of the cell.
In the whole process of glycolysis, there are chemical reactions of 10 steps reactions, and each step takes place in the presence of enzymes.

Who discovered glycolysis?

All the steps of glycolysis were explained and first discovered by three different biologists. The names of these scientists are as follows –

Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas.

Based on the name of these biologists, glycolysis is also called EMP-Pathway.
It occurs in the absence of oxygen in every type of cell, whether the cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate which contains 3-carbons.
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell, because all the enzymes involved in this process are present in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Glycolysis is also known as Common Glycolytic Pathway.
Because this is the first process to break down glucose, whether the cell is aerobic or anaerobic, prokaryotic or eukaryotic .
A total of 4-ATP is produced in the entire glycolysis, and 2-ATP is used.

In this way, if we see the net benefit of ATP, it is only of 2-ATP. Along with this, 2-NADPH2 molecules are also formed.

Process of Glycolysis

There are ten steps in glycolysis, we will understand them in different steps, and in which the diagram is also shown –
First Step- In the first step, glucose is converted into Glucose-6-Phosphate in the presence of Hexokinase enzyme. One ATP molecule is spent in this process.

Second Step- In the next step, glucose-6-phosphate isomerized into fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of Isomerase enzyme, this reaction is also called isomerization reaction.

Three Step- In the third step, fructose-6-phosphate is converted into fructose-1, 6- bisphosphate with the help of kinase enzyme. In this process again one ATP is used.

Fourth Step- In the fourth step fructose-1,6 bisphosphate breaks down into two different chemical compounds with 3 carbons.
Their names are – Glyceraldehyde – 3-Phosphate and Dihydroxy acetone Phosphate.

in the fourth step enzyme aldolase is used.
Dihydroxy acetone phosphate is again converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of Isomerase enzyme.
Fifth Step- In the fifth step, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted into 1, 3-bisphospho glycerate in the presence of enzyme dehydrogenase. During this, a molecule NADH2 is also produced.

Sixth Step- In this step 1, 3 bis phosphoglycerate is converted into 3 – Phosphoglycerate in the presence of enzyme kinase. Here an ATP is formed from the Substrate Level Phosphorylation.

Seventh Step- In this step, 3-phosphoglycerate is converted into 2-phosphoglycerate in the presence of enzyme mutase.

Eighth Step- In this step, 2-Phosphoglycerate is converted into 2-Phosphoenal pyruvate (2-PEP-Phosphoenol Pyruvate) with the help of enzyme Enolase.

Ninth Step- This is the last step of glycolysis, where Phosphoenol pyruvate is converted into pyruvate with the help of kinase enzyme.

In this process then substrate level phosphorylation occurs, and one ATP is forms.

Note- The process of formation of pyruvate from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate goes on twice, and 4 ATP are formed by mixing cool. And in the initial process 2 ATP are formed. In this way there is a total net gain of 2 ATP.

Similarly, if aerobic respiration takes place, then both NADH2 completely oxidized and 6 ATP are formed. Hence the total gain of ATP is 8.


Question – Where does glycolysis take place in the cell?
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.

Question – Is oxygen required in glycolysis?
Oxygen is not required in glycolysis.

Question – How many steps of glycolysis?
There are a total of 10-step glycolysis, and all are enzyme catalyzed reactions.

Question – What is the end product of glycolysis?
Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis.

Question – What are the names of the scientists who discovered glycogenesis?
Name of the scientist who discovered glycolysis- Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas.

Question – How many ATP are produced in glycolysis?
Four ATP (4-ATP) are formed in the whole process of glycolysis.

Question – How many ATP is spent in glycolysis?
The whole process use 2 ATP.

Question – How many NADH2 are formed in glycolysis?
Two NADH2 molecules are produced in complete glycolysis.


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